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Resources by (Type) Topic

Conflict of Interest
Direct to Consumer Promotion
Disease Mongering
Docs and Pharma
Drug Information
Drug Promotion
Drug Reps
Drug Risks
Evidence-Based Medicine
Generic Drugs
Ghostwriting
Industry-Sponsored Research
Media
Medical Journals
Patient Information
Samples


Conflict of Interest (back to menu)

    No Free Lunch Provider Database Directory of health care providers who refuse pharma gifts and info.

    Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) Integrity in Science Project A conflict-of-interest database that includes individuals and groups. A CSPI listserve provides weekly information about conflicts of interest in science. Subscribe to the CSPI listserve.

    Conflict-of-interest Database Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) Integrity in Science database includes conflict of interest information on individuals and organizations.

    Report of the AAMC Task Force on Industry Funding of Medical Education to the AAMC Executive Council
    COI in medical education.

    American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard 2008 Conflict of interest policies at academic medical centers

    Minnesota Board of Pharmacy Payments to Practitioners Documents

    Sah S, Loewenstein G, Cain DM. The burden of disclosure: increased compliance with distrusted advice. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2013 Feb;104(2):289-304.

    Sah S. Conflicts of interest and your physician: psychological processes that cause unexpected changes in behavior. J Law Med Ethics. 2012 Fall;40(3):482-7.

    Loewenstein G, Sah S, Cain DM. The unintended consequences of conflict ofinterest disclosure. JAMA. 2012 Feb 15;307(7):669-70.

    Choudhry NK, Stelfox HT, Detsky AS. Relationships between authors of clinical practice guidelines and the pharmaceutical industry. JAMA 2002;287:612-7.
    Abstract Full Text

    Yank V, Rennie D, Bero LA. Financial ties and concordance between results and conclusions in meta-analyses: retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2007;335:1202-5.
    Abstract Full Text


Direct To Consumer Promotion (back to menu)

    Prescription Drug Marketing What consumers need to know.

    Dominick L. Frosch DL, Krueger PM, Hornik RC, Cronholm PF, Barg FK. Creating Demand for Prescription Drugs: A Content Analysis of Television Direct-to-Consumer Advertising. Ann Fam Med 2007;5(1):6-13.
    Full Text

    Gellad Z and Lyles K. Direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals. Am J of Med. 2007;120:475-480.
    Abstract

    Kravitz RL, Epstein RM, Feldman MD, Franz CE, Azari R, Wilkes MS, Hinton L, Franks P.Influence of patients' requests for direct-to-consumer advertised antidepressants: a randomized controlled trial.JAMA. 2005 Apr 27;293(16):1995-2002.
    Abstract Full Text (free, but must sign in)

    Zachry WM 3rd, Shepherd MD, Hinich MJ, Wilson JP, Brown CM, Lawson KA. Relationship between direct-to-consumer advertising and physician diagnosing and prescribing. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2002 Jan 1;59(1):42-9.
    Abstract


Disease Mongering (back to menu)
    Marshall J and Aldhous P. Patient groups special: swallowing the best advice? New Sci. 2006 Oct 27;2575:18-22.
    Full Text

    Moynihan R, Heath I, Henry D. Selling sickness: the pharmaceutical industry and disease mongering.BMJ. 2002 Apr 13;324(7342):886-91.
    Abstract and Full Text

    Moynihan R. Henry D. The fight against disease mongering: generating knowledge for action. PloS Med. 2006 Apr 3(4):e191. Epub 2006 Apr 11.
    Full Text


Docs and Pharma (back to menu)
    See Drug Promotion: Books for additional resources

    The Physician-Pharma Relationship
    PharmedOut Grand Rounds Presentation (open access)
    Links only work in slideshow view.

    National Physicians Alliance Founded by former leaders of AMSA, the NPA seeks "to restore physicians' primary emphasis on the core values of our profession: service, integrity, and advocacy...and to ensure equitable, affordable, high quality health care for all people."

    No Free Lunch “Just say no to drug reps.” Physicians and medical students who “believe that pharmaceutical promotion should not guide clinical practice.” Information, news, resources, and essays; NFL also invented the “Pen Amnesty” program.

    American Medical Student Association (AMSA) and the AMSA Pharm-Free campaign Information on “counterdetailing” for medical students. Includes sources of independent information on drugs , slideshows, and downloadable stickers used to cover up drug company logos.

    Demanding Evidence, Foregoing Industry Bias (De-Fib) New site from University of Rochester medical students.

    Persuading Prescribers (powerpoint) Wilson Lectureship given by Dr. Fugh-Berman in Albuquerque on September 29, 2006.

    Getting Doctors to Say Yes to Drugs: The Cost and Quality Impact of Drug Company Marketing to Physicians. Blue Cross Blue Shield Association. Millenson, ML. Accessed September 2, 2006.

    Office of the Inspector General has the OIG Compliance Program Guidance for Pharmaceutical Manufacturers. Federal Register / Vol. 68, No. 86 / Monday, May 5, 2003 / Notices / 23731.

    Articles: Docs and Pharma

      Andersen M, Kragstrup J, Søndergaard J. How conducting a clinical trial affects physicians' guideline adherence and drug preferences. JAMA. 2006 Jun 21;295(23):2759-64.

      Korenstein D, Keyhani S, Ross JS. Physician attitudes toward industry: a view across the specialties. Arch Surg. 2010 Jun;145(6):570-7. doi: 10.1001/archsurg.2010.75.

      Campbell E, Gruen R, Mountford J, et. al. A national survey of physician–industry relationships. NEJM 2007 Apr 26;356(17):1742-50.
      Abstract
      Full Text

      Carroll AE, Vreeman RC, Buddenbaum J, Inui TS. To what extent do educational interventions impact medical trainees' attitudes and behaviors regarding industry-trainee and industry-physician relationships? Pediatrics 2007;120:e1528-35.
      Abstract Full Text

      Lexchin J. Interactions between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry: what does the literature say? CMAJ 1993;149(10):1401-7.
      Abstract Full Text

      Lexchin J. Of Money and trust in medical care. The Academia-Industry Symposium MSM 2007: Medical Practice and the Pharmaceutical Industry and ever the duo shall meet. MSM 2007 Jan-Dec;5:7-10.
      Full Text

      Mansfield P, Lexchin J, Wen L, Grandori L, McCoy C, Hoffman J, et. al. Educating health professionals about drug and device promotion: advocates’ recommendations. Plos Med. 2006 November;3(11):1988-1991.
      Full Text

      Mather C. The pipeline and the porcupine: alternate metaphors of the physician-industry relationship. Soc Sci Med. 2005 Mar;60(6):1323-34.
      Abstract

      Oldani MJ. Thick prescriptions: toward an interpretation of pharmaceutical sales practices. Med Anthropol Q. 2004 Sep;18(3):325-56.
      Abstract

      Ross J, Lackner J, Lurie P, et. al. Pharmaceutical company payments to physicians: early experiences with disclosure laws in Vermont and Minnesota. JAMA 2007 Mar 21;297(11):1216-1222.
      Abstract Full Text

      Segovis CM, Mueller PS, Rethlefsen ML, et al. If you feed them, they will come: a prospective study of the effects of complimentary food on attendance and physician attitudes at medical grand rounds at an academic medical center. BMC Med Educ 2007;7:22.
      Abstract Full Text

      Sierles FS, Brodkey AC, Cleary LM, et al. Medical students' exposure to and attitudes about drug company interactions: a national survey. JAMA 2005;294:1034-42.
      Abstract Full Text

      Wazana A. Physicians and the pharmaceutical industry: is a gift ever just a gift? JAMA. 2000; 283:373-380.
      Abstract Full Text (free, but must sign)


Drug Information (back to menu)

    Great guidelines from the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Evidence

    Unbiased Resources Drugs and other therapies.

    FDA MEDWATCH Drug safety information, warning letters about drugs, and instructions on how to report adverse events. Join the email list.

    FDA Drug Safety Newsletter (subscribe) Provides postmarketing information to healthcare professionals on new drug safety information and adverse events.

    Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs A public information project administered by Consumers Union.

    Therapeutics Letter Independent publication on rational drug therapy published by the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics at the University of British Columbia.

    Australian Prescriber Independent review of drugs and therapeutics published by the National Prescribing Service.

    National Prescribing Center (NPC, part of the National Health Service, U.K.) MeReC Rapid Review (free subscription) appraises new findings in the context of the current evidence base and healthcare practice. Recent reports:

    RxFacts Independent Drug Information Service Objective drug information. Clinical topics include:

      NSAIDs and cox-2 inhibitors

      Upper G.I. symptoms

      Anti-platelet therapy

      Lipid-lowering therapy

    Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) Dozens of state-funded evidence reports on drugs.

    Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) Evidence reports and research reviews on various diseases and conditions.

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) Information on cancer treatments for health care professionals and consumers.

    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER)

      Specific drugs at the FDA

      Guidances the FDA’s current thinking on various topics

    U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) - February 2011 Full Report on Prescription Drugs: Trends in Usual and Customary Prices for Commonly Used Drugs

    Thoreau-FDA.com FDA staffers express drug safety concerns.

    World Health Organization (WHO) the United Nations health agency has extensive publications and resources on international health, specific diseases, and drug information.

      Medicines page

      Selection and Rational Use of Medicines

      WHO Drug Information

      WHO Pharmaceuticals Newsletter information on the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products. For a free subscription, email listserv@who.int with the following message text: "subscribe WHO-PHN."

      WHO Essential Drugs Monitor Information on national drug policies, current pharmaceutical issues, and rational drug use.


Drug Promotion (back to menu)

    WHO Drug Promotion A World Health Organization database that contains more than 2000 abstracts from 1970-2002.

    Health Care Renewal Summaries, commentary and links to news stories about integrity in science and medicine, drug promotion, institutional and corporate scandals.

    Healthy Skepticism An international non-profit organization that “aims to improve health by reducing harm from misleading drug promotion.” Adwatch analyzes selected drug ads.

    peRx (Prescribing Evidence-based Therapies) offers a documentary, information, and educational modules on the drug approval process, marketing strategies, ethical dimensions, and strategies to improve prescribing.

    Summary of Pharmaceutical Marketing Expenditures in the District of Columbia, Calendar Year 2006

    Educational Initiatives For Medical and Pharmacy Students About Drug Promotion: an International Cross-sectional Survey (pdf 3.75 MB) Mintzes B. World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Action International (HAI), 2005. Free paper copy available on request from WHO: e-mail edmdoccentre@who.int.

    Blurring the Boundaries. Mintzes B. Health Action International (HAI).

    Branding the Cure. Consumers International.

    Turning Medicine Into Snake Oil: How Pharmaceutical Marketers Put Patients At Risk. New Jersey Public Interest Research Group Law and Policy Center. May 2006.

    Profiting from Pain: Where Prescription Dollars Go. July 2002. Families USA Publication 02-105. More at Families USA Prescription Drug Publications.

    Lifting the Veil of Secrecy: Corporate Support for Health and Environmental Professional Associations, Charities, and Industry Front Groups. A 2003 report from Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI)

    Drug promotion: what we know, what we have yet to learn: Reviews of materials in the WHO/HAI database on drug promotion EDM Research Series no. 32 (102 pages)

    Kaiser Family Foundation National Survey of Physicians Part II: Doctors and Prescription Drugs, March 2002. Additional Findings were released in 2006.

    Kaiser Family Foundation Prescription Drug Trends Fact Sheet.

    Pushing Prescriptions explores the political influence of the pharmaceutical industry. A project of the Center for Public Integrity.

    Big Pharma Behaving Badly: A Survey of Selected Class Action Lawsuits Against Drug Companies, Fourth Edition. January 2005. Prepared for Families USA by Patrick Cafferty, Miller Faucher, and Cafferty, LLP. More at Families USA Prescription Drug Publications.

    The roles of the FDA and pharmaceutical companies in ensuring the safety of approved drugs, like Vioxx. Selected documents on the marketing of Vioxx, for a Congressional hearing held on May 05, 2005 by the Committee on Government Reform, Minority Office.

    Drug Industry Document Archive (DIDA) Searchable database of internal industry documents and other papers concerning the marketing of Neurontin (gabapentin); also documents on the marketing of Vioxx (rofecoxib) from public records.

    Drug Ad Bingo An exercise for physicians-in-training on how to recognize sales techniques in pharmaceutical ads.

    Greene JA. Pharmaceutical marketing research and the prescribing physician. Ann Intern Med 2007;146:742-8.
    Abstract Full Text

Drug Promotion: Blogs (back to menu)

    Pharmalot

    Pharmagossip

    Carlat Psychiatry Blog

    PostScript

    Hooked: Ethics, Medicine, and Pharma

    GoozNews

    Health Care Renewal

    Peter Rost's Question Authority

    Clinical Psych Blog

    Pharma Marketing News

    FiercePharma

    Medical Evidence Blog

    See more blogs

Drug Promotion: Books (back to menu)

    Abramson, John. Overdo$ed America: the broken promise of American medicine. New York, NY. Harper Collins, 2004.

    Angell, Marcia. The truth about the drug companies: how they deceive us and what to do about it. New York, NY. Random House, 2004.

    Avorn, Jerry. Powerful medicines: the benefits, risks, and costs of prescription drugs. New York, NY. Knopf, 2004.

    Brody, Howard. Hooked: ethics, the medical profession, and the pharmaceutical industry. New York, NY. Rowan and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2007.

    Brownlee, Shannon. Overtreated: why too much medicine is making us sicker and poorer. New York, NY. Bloomsbury, 2007.

    Critser, Greg. Generation Rx: how prescription drugs are altering American lives, minds, and bodies. Mariner Books, 2007.

    Elliott, Carl. Better than well: American medicine meets the American dream. New York, NY. W.W. Norton, 2003.

    Fox, Stephen R. The mirror makers: a history of American advertising and its creators. New York, NY. Morrow, 1984.

    Goozner, Merrill. The $800 million pill: the truth behind the cost of new drugs. Berkeley, CA. University of California Press, 2004.

    Greene, Jeremy A. Prescribing by numbers: drugs and the definition of disease. Baltimore, MD. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

    Healy, David. The antidepressant era. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press, 1997.

    Healy, David. Let them eat Prozac: the unhealthy relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and depression. New York, NY. New York University Press, 2004.

    Kassirer, Jerome P. On the take: how America's complicity with big business can endanger your health. New York, NY. Oxford University Press, 2005.

    Kilbourne, Jean. Can't buy my love: how advertising changes the way we think and feel. New York, NY. Simon & Schuster, 1999.

    Kilbourne, Jean. Deadly persuasion: why women and girls must fight the addictive power of advertising. New York, NY. Free Press, 1999.

    Moynihan, Ray . Selling sickness: how the world's biggest pharmaceutical companies are turning us all into patients. New York, NY. Nation Books, 2005.

    Mundy, Alicia. Dispensing with the truth: the victims, the drug companies, and the dramatic story behind the battle over Fen-Phen. New York, NY. St. Martin's Press, 2001.

    Payer, Lynn. Medicine and culture: varieties of treatment in the United States, England, West Germany, and France. New York, NY. Henry Holt and Company, 1996.

    Reidy, Jamie. Hard sell: the evolution of a Viagra salesman. Kansas City, MO. Andrews McMeel, 2005.

    Washburn, Jennifer. University, Inc.: the corporate corruption of American higher education. New York, NY. Basic Books, 2005.


Drug Reps (back to menu)

    Mintzes B, Lexchin J, Sutherland JM, Beaulieu MD, Wilkes MS, Durrieu G, Reynolds E. Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives and Patient Safety: A Comparative Prospective Study of Information Quality in Canada, France and the United States. J Gen Intern Med. 2013 Apr 5.

    Chimonas S, Brennan T, Rothman D. Physicians and drug representatives: exploring the dynamics of the relationship. JGIM 2007 Feb;22(2): 184–190
    Abstract and Full Text

    Fugh-Berman A, Ahari S. Following the script: how drug reps make friends and influence doctors. PLoS Med 2007 Apr 24; 4(4): e150.
    Full Text

    Pegler S and Underhill J. Evaluating promotional material from industry: an evidence-based approach. The Pharmaceutical Journal. 2005 March 5;274(7339): 271-274.
    Full Text

    Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC, Bennett JH. Teaching information mastery: evaluating information provided by pharmaceutical representatives. Fam Med. 1995 Oct;27(9):581-5.
    Abstract (see Module 12)

    Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC, Bennett JH. Separating the wheat from the chaff: identifying fallacies in pharmaceutical promotion. J Gen Intern Med. 1994 Oct;9(10):563-8.
    Full Text (see Module 12) Separating the Wheat From the Chaff: Obtaining Useful Information from Pharmaceutical Representatives (powerpoint) by David C. Slawson and Allen F. Shaughnessy.

    Steinman M, Harper, M, Chren M, et. al. Characteristics and impact of drug detailing for gabapentin. PLoS Med 2007 Apr 24;4(4): e134.
    Full Text

    Zipkin DA, Steinman MA. Interactions between pharmaceutical representatives and doctors in training. A thematic review. J Gen Intern Med. 2005 Aug;20(8):777-86.
    Abstract and Full Text


Drug Risks (back to menu)

    Kesselheim AS, Avorn J. The Role of Litigation in Defining Drug Risks. JAMA 2007 Jan 17;297(3):308-311.
    Full Text (free, but must sign in)

    Krumholz HM, Ross JS, Presler AH, Egilman, DS. What have we learnt from Vioxx? BMJ 2007 Jan;334(7585):120-123.
    Abstract Full Text

    Moore TJ, Cohen MR, Furberg CD. Serious adverse drug events reported to the Food and Drug Administration, 1998-2005. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:1752-9.
    Abstract


Evidence-Based Medicine (back to menu)

    Why Not the Best? Results from the National Scorecard on U.S. Health System Performance, 2008. The Commonwealth Fund Commission on a High Performance Health System.

    Unbiased Resources Drugs and other therapies.

    Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) Evidence reports and research reviews on various diseases and conditions.

    AHRQ Compendia for Coverage of Off-Label Uses of Drugs and Biologics in an Anticancer Chemotherapeutic Regimen A review of drug compendia.

    Fast Facts on Generic Drugs Information for patients.

    Office of Medical Applications of Research (OMAR), National Institutes of Health (NIH) lists NIH State-of-the-Science Consensus Statements.

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides statistics, publications, and additional information on disease conditions. Free Subscription to the CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).

    National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) contains reports and data on national and local health statistics.

    US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) Guide to Clinical Practice for 2006. Free in pdf, print, or downloadable PDA format.

    The Cochrane Collaboration Systematic reviews of hundreds of medical therapies. Full reviews require subscription, but abstracts are free.

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Independent organization in the U.K. that provides national guidance on the promotion of good health and the prevention and treatment of ill health.

    James Lind Library Great information on evidence-based medicine; for example, see fair tests of therapies. Also contains historical documents.

    Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine Lots of learning and teaching tools, including glossaries of terms and slideshows on Teaching Evidence Based Health Care; Graphical Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology; Implementing Evidence Based Practices; Statistics in Homeopathic Doses and Teaching about Diagnosis.

    The Centers for Reviews Dissemination Primarily funded by the National Health Service (U.K.), the CDRD includes the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) which contains abstracts of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

      Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED)

      Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database

      Ongoing Reviews Database

    National Electronic Library for Health (NeLH) provides access to MeReC, Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin, Bandolier, and other sites. Some resources (Cochrane reviews) are available only in the U.K.

    Health Action International: An international group that “works to increase access and improve the rational use of essential medicines.”

    New Drugs from Old: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin, Vol 44 No. 10 Oct 2006 (powerpoint) presented at the Medical Journal Club, Morriston Hospital by Scott Pegler, Pharmacist at the National Health Service (UK) on November 20, 2006.

    An Introduction to Information Mastery (powerpoint) Mark H. Ebell, Department of Family Practice, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University. A course on Information Mastery, Evidence-Based Medicine, and critical appraisal of the medical literature.


Generic Drugs (back to menu)
    Fast Facts on Generic Drugs Information for patients.


Ghostwriting (back to menu)

    Matheson A. How industry uses the ICMJE guidelines to manipulate authorship--and how they should be revised. PLoS Med. 2011 Aug;8(8):e1001072. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001072.

    Frequently Asked Questions on Ghostwriting for Experts, Reporters, and Laymen Project on Government Oversight

    Ghostwriting and Pharmaceutical Company Payments Links to industry documents, articles, payments to physicians and organizations, and corporate integrity agreements.

    Anekwe TD. Profits and plagiarism: the case of medical ghostwriting. Bioethics. 2009 Feb 10. [Epub ahead of print].
    Abstract Full Text

    Fugh-Berman A. The corporate coauthor. J Gen Int Med 2005;20(6):546-548. Abstract Full Text

    Fugh-Berman A, Dodgson S. The ethics of publication planning in the pharmaceutical industry. Open Medicine 2008;4(5):e40-43. Full Text

    Fugh-Berman A, Melnick D. Off-label promotion, on-target sales. PLoS Medicine 2008;5 (10): e210. Full Text

    Gotzsche PC, Hrobjartsson A, Johansen HK, Haahr MT, Altman DG, Chan AW. Ghost authorship in industry-initiated randomised trials. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e19. Full Text

    Gøtzsche PC, Kassirer JP, Woolley KL, Wager E, Jacobs A, Gertel A, Hamilton C. What should be done to tackle ghostwriting in the medical literature? PLoS Med. 2009 Feb 3;6(2):e23. Full Text

    Healy D. In the grip of the python: conflicts at the university-industry interface. Sci Eng Ethics. 2003 Jan;9(1):59-71. Abstract

    McHenry LB, Jureidini JN. Industry-sponsored ghostwriting in clinical trial reporting: a case study. Account Res. 2008 Jul-Sep;15(3):152-67. Abstract

    Moffatt B, Elliott C. Ghost marketing: pharmaceutical companies and ghostwritten journal articles. Perspect Biol Med. 2007 Winter;50(1):18-31. Abstract

    Ross JS, Hill KP, Egilman DS, Krumholz HM. Guest authorship and ghostwriting in publications related to rofecoxib: a case study of industry documents from rofecoxib litigation. JAMA. 2008 Apr 16;299(15):1800-12. Abstract Full Text


Industry-Sponsored Research (back to menu)
    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Guidance for Industry on Industry-Supported Scientific and Educational Activities. Federal Register / Vol. 62, No. 232 / Wednesday, December 3, 1997 / Notices/64093. Additional Guidances from CDER.

Articles: Industry-Sponsored Research

    Glaser BE, Bero LA. Attitudes of academic and clinical researchers toward financial ties in research: a systematic review. Sci Eng Ethics. 2005 Oct;11(4):553-73.

    Khan SN, Mermer MJ, Myers E, Sandhu HS. The roles of funding source, clinical trial outcome, and quality of reporting in orthopedic surgery literature. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2008 Dec;37(12):E205-12; discussion E212.

    Lundh A, Sismondo S, Lexchin J, Busuioc OA, Bero L. Industry sponsorship andresearch outcome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Dec 12;12:MR000033. doi:10.1002/14651858.MR000033.pub2. Review. PubMed PMID: 23235689.

    Bennett CL, Lai SY, Henke M, Barnato SE, Armitage JO, Sartor O. Association between pharmaceutical support and basic science research on erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Sep 13;170(16):1490-8.

    Als-Nielsen B, Chen W, Gluud C, Kjaergard LL. Association of funding and conclusions in randomized drug trials: a reflection of treatment effect or adverse events? JAMA 2003;290(7):921-8.
    Abstract Full Text (free, but must sign in)

    Ashar BH, Miller RG, Getz KJ, Powe NR. Prevalence and determinants of physician participation in conducting pharmaceutical-sponsored clinical trials and lectures. J Gen Intern Med 2004;19:1140-5.
    Abstract Full Text

    Bhandari M, Busse JW, Jackowski D, Montori VM, Schunemann H, Sprague S, Mears D, Schemitsch EH, Heels-Ansdell D, Devereaux PJ. Association between industry funding and statistically significant pro-industry findings in medical and surgical randomized trials. CMAJ 2004; 170: 477-480.
    Abstract Full Text

    Lexchin J, Bero LA, Djulbegovic B, Clark O. Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review. BMJ. 2003;326:1167-70.
    Abstract Full Text

    Melander H, Ahlqvist-Rastad J, Meijer G, Beermann B. Evidence b(i)ased medicine--selective reporting from studies sponsored by pharmaceutical industry: review of studies in new drug applications. BMJ. 2003;326:1171-3.
    Abstract Full Text

    Shah, AA and Thomas FE. Commercial influence on psychiatric drug studies. Psychiatric Times. 2006 May; 71-73.
    Full text

    Sismondo S. How pharmaceutical industry funding affects trial outcomes: Causal structures and responses. Soc Sci Med 2008;66:1909-14.
    Abstract

    Sismondo S. Pharmaceutical company funding and its consequences: A qualitative systematic review. Contemp Clin Trials 2008;29:109-13.
    Abstract


Media (back to menu)

    Moynihan R, Bero L, Ross-Degnan D, Henry D, Lee K, Watkins J, Mah C, Soumerai SB. Coverage by the news media of the benefits and risks of medications. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jun 1;342(22):1645-50.
    Abstract Full Text (free, but must sign in)


Medical Journals (back to menu)

    CSE’s White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications. Editorial Policy Committee (2005-2006), Council of Science Editors (CSE) 2006.


Patient Information(back to menu)

    No Drug Reps Certificate (pdf)

    Prescription Drug Marketing What consumers need to know.

    Fast Facts on Generic Drugs Information for patients.

    Help Your Doctor Break the Sample Habit

    Unbiased Resources Drugs and other therapies.

    Waiting Room Activism

    Over-the-Counter Sales of Medical Records


Samples (back to menu)

    Adair RF, Holmgren LR. Do drug samples influence resident prescribing behavior? A randomized trial.Am J Med. 2005 Aug;118(8):881-4.
    Abstract Full Text

    Boltri JM, Gordon ER, Vogel RL. Effect of antihypertensive samples on physician prescribing patterns. Fam Med 2002;34:729-31.
    Abstract

    Chew, LD, et al. A Physician Survey of the Effect of Drug Sample Availability on Physicians' Behavior. J Gen Int Med. 2000;15: 478-483.
    Abstract Full Text

    Groves KEM, Sketris I, Tett SE. Prescription drug samples--does this marketing strategy counteract policies for quality use of medicines? J Clin Pharm Ther 2003;28:259-71.
    Abstract



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